Stacking elements is a powerful tool in illustration and in typography. To use stacking as a tool, you must put the emphasis on the right element and then work around it. Identify the key word, message, letter or icon first. Building around a central point helps bring attention to the intended element. If too many elements are emphasized the overall message and intent can be lost in a sea of Jenga! like text or elements.
Repetition: the recurrence of an action or event.
Repetition, in design, can have a varied effect. When large objects are repeated it can be shocking... like Stone Hendge shocking. Small objects repeated make the eye look for a pattern, for instance in tile work. In architecture, repetition is often present and unnoticed when the pattern created by the repetition is traditional to our culture. When traveling to a different culture, vivid new patterns appear in every surface. Searching for repetition when you travel to another culture can offer insight into a cultures history, religion, and people.